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iScience . 2020 Jun 26

A Potential Role for Epigenetically Mediated Trained Immunity in Food Allergy

Samira Imran, Melanie R Neeland, Rebecca Shepherd, Nicole Messina, Kirsten P Perrett, Mihai G Netea, Nigel Curtis, Richard Saffery, Boris Novakovic

The prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy is increasing at a rapid pace in many countries. The association of high food allergy rates with Westernized lifestyles suggests the role of gene-environment interactions, potentially underpinned by epigenetic variation, in mediating this process. Recent studies have implicated innate immune system dysfunction in the development and persistence of food allergy. These responses are characterized by increased circulating frequency of innate immune cells and heightened inflammatory responses to bacterial stimulation in food allergic patients. These signatures mirror those described in trained immunity, whereby innate immune cells retain a "memory" of earlier microbial encounters, thus influencing subsequent immune responses. Here, we propose that a robust multi-omics approach that integrates immunological, transcriptomic, and epigenomic datasets, combined with well-phenotyped and longitudinal food allergy cohorts, can inform the potential role of trained immunity in food allergy.

PMID: 32480123