Aging Induces an Nlrp3 Inflammasome-Dependent Expansion of Adipose B Cells That Impairs Metabolic Homeostasis.
During aging, visceral adiposity is often associated with alterations in adipose tissue (AT) leukocytes, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. However, the contribution of AT B cells in immunometabolism during aging is unexplored. Here, we show that aging is associated with an expansion of a unique population of resident non-senescent aged adipose B cells (AABs) found in fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs). AABs are transcriptionally distinct from splenic age-associated B cells (ABCs) and show greater expansion in female mice. Functionally, whole-body B cell depletion restores proper lipolysis and core body temperature maintenance during cold stress. Mechanistically, the age-induced FALC formation, AAB, and splenic ABC expansion is dependent on the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Furthermore, AABs express IL-1R, and inhibition of IL-1 signaling reduces their proliferation and increases lipolysis in aging. These data reveal that inhibiting Nlrp3-dependent B cell accumulation can be targeted to reverse metabolic impairment in aging AT.