Postoperative ileus (POI) is an intestinal dysmotility frequently occurring after abdominal surgery. An orchestrated neuroimmune response within the muscularis externa (ME) involves activation of resident macrophages, enteric glia and infiltration of blood-derived leukocytes. Interleukin-1 receptor type-I (IL1R1) signalling on enteric glia has been shown to be involved in POI development. Herein we investigated the distinct role of the IL1R1 ligands interleukin (IL) -1α and IL-1β and focused on the mechanism of IL-1β production. IL-1α and IL-1β deficient mice were protected from POI. Bone-marrow transplantation studies indicated that IL-1α originated from radio-resistant cells while IL-1β was released from the radio-sensitive infiltrating leukocytes. Mouse strains deficient in inflammasome formation identified the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome to be crucial for IL-1β production in POI. Mechanistically, antibiotic-treated mice revealed a prominent role of the microbiome in IL-1β production. Our study provides new insights into distinct roles of IL-1α and IL-1β signalling during POI. While IL-1α release is most likely an immediate passive response to the surgical trauma, IL-1β production depends on AIM2 inflammasome formation and the microbiome. Selective interaction in this pathway might be a promising target to prevent POI in surgical patients.