Comprehensive analysis of tumor necrosis factor receptor TNFRSF9 (4-1BB) DNA methylation with regard to molecular and clinicopathological features, immune infiltrates, and response prediction to immunotherapy in melanoma.
Immunotherapy, including checkpoint inhibition, has remarkably improved prognosis in advanced melanoma. Despite this success, acquired resistance is still a major challenge. The T cell costimulatory receptor TNFRSF9 (also known as 4-1BB and CD137) is a promising new target for immunotherapy and two agonistic antibodies are currently tested in clinical trials. However, little is known about epigenetic regulation of the encoding gene. In this study we investigate a possible correlation of TNFRSF9 DNA methylation with gene expression, clinicopathological parameters, molecular and immune correlates, and response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy to assess the validity of TNFRSF9 methylation to serve as a biomarker.