ImmunoSensation - the immune sensory system

Nat Neurosci. 2019 Jul 15.

Elevated levels of Secreted-Frizzled-Related-Protein 1 contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

Esteve P, Rueda-Carrasco J, Inés Mateo M, Martin-Bermejo MJ, Draffin J, Pereyra G, Sandonís Á, Crespo I, Moreno I, Aso E, Garcia-Esparcia P, Gomez-Tortosa E, Rábano A, Fortea J, Alcolea D, Lleo A, Heneka MT, Valpuesta JM, Esteban JA, Ferrer I, Domínguez M, Bovolenta P

The deposition of aggregated amyloid-β peptides derived from the pro-amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precurson protein (APP) into characteristic amyloid plaques (APs) is distinctive to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alternative APP processing via the metalloprotease ADAM10 prevents amyloid-β formation. We tested whether downregulation of ADAM10 activity by its secreted endogenous inhibitor secreted-frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) is a common trait of sporadic AD. We demonstrate that SFRP1 is significantly increased in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with AD, accumulates in APs and binds to amyloid-β, hindering amyloid-β protofibril formation. Sfrp1 overexpression in an AD-like mouse model anticipates the appearance of APs and dystrophic neurites, whereas its genetic inactivation or the infusion of α-SFRP1-neutralizing antibodies favors non-amyloidogenic APP processing. Decreased Sfrp1 function lowers AP accumulation, improves AD-related histopathological traits and prevents long-term potentiation loss and cognitive deficits. Our study unveils SFRP1 as a crucial player in AD pathogenesis and a promising AD therapeutic target.

PMID: 31308530