For more than a decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been in focus of science. Once thought to be an efficient way to eliminate undesirable cell content, EVs are now well-accepted as being an important alternative to cytokines and chemokines in cell-to-cell communication route. With their cargos, mainly consisting of functional proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, they can activate signalling cascades and thus change the phenotype of recipient cells at local and systemic levels. Their substantial role as modulators of various physiological and pathological processes is acknowledged. Importantly, more and more evidence arises that EVs play a pivotal role in many stages of carcinogenesis. Via EV-mediated communication, tumour cells can manipulate cells from host immune system or from the tumour microenvironment, and, ultimately, they promote tumour progression and modulate host immunity towards tumour's favour. Additionally, the role of EVs in modulating resistance to pharmacological and radiological therapy of many cancer types has become evident lately. Our understanding of EV biology and their role in cancer promotion and drug resistance has evolved considerably in recent years. In this review, we specifically discuss the current knowledge on the association between EVs and gastrointestinal (GI) and liver cancers, including their potential for diagnosis and treatment.