ImmunoSensation - the immune sensory system

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Front Immunol. 2019 Jun 11.

Regulation of Innate Immune Responses by Platelets.

Ribeiro LS, Migliari Branco L, Franklin BS

The role of platelets has been extensively studied in the context of coagulation and vascular integrity. Their hemostatic imbalance can lead to known conditions as atherosclerotic plaques, thrombosis, and ischemia. Nevertheless, the knowledge regarding the regulation of different cell types by platelets has been growing exponentially in the past years. Among these biological systems, the innate immune response is remarkably affected by the crosstalk with platelets. This interaction can come from the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates, signaling by direct contact between membrane surface molecules or by the stimulation of immune cells by soluble factors and active microparticles secreted by platelets. These ubiquitous blood components are able to sense and react to danger signals, guiding leukocytes to an injury site and providing a scaffold for the formation of extracellular traps for efficient microbial killing and clearance. Using several different mechanisms, platelets have an important task as they regulate the release of different cytokines and chemokines upon sterile or infectious damage, the expression of cell markers and regulation of cell death and survival. Therefore, platelets are more than clotting agents, but critical players within the fine inflammatory equilibrium for the host. In this review, we present pointers to a better understanding about how platelets control and modulate innate immune cells, as well as a summary of the outcome of this interaction, providing an important step for therapeutic opportunities and guidance for future research on infectious and autoimmune diseases.

PMID: 31244858