Schistosoma mansoni PCR infected individuals in the Sudan present elevated systemic levels of chemokines when compared to uninfected and egg cohorts.
Infections with Schistosoma mansoni remain a major health problem in the Sudan where endemic communities, such as those in Kassala and Khartoum states, continue to face severe social-economic difficulties. Our previous immunoepidemiological findings revealed different immune (cytokine and S. mansoni egg (SEA) antibody) profiles in individuals with active infections (eggs in stool n=110), individuals positive for S. mansoni via PCR using sera (SmPCR n=63) and those uninfected (Sm uninf). Since antibody responses to eggs and worms are known to change during infection we have expanded the profiling further by determining levels of adult worm (SWA) antibodies and nine chemokines in the serum of each individual in the three different cohorts. With the exception of CCL2, all measured chemokines were significantly higher in SmPCR individuals when compared to the egg group and in addition they presented elevated levels of SWA-specific IgG2 as well. Multivariable regression analysis further revealed that infection per se was strongly linked to SWA-specific IgG3 levels and CCL5 was strongly associated with a SmPCR diagnostic state. In the absence of PCR diagnostics that recognize juvenile worms or schistosomulae motives, identifying schistosome-specific traits should provide better insights into current prevalence rates in endemic communities and in doing so, take into consideration PCR non-egg individuals in current treatment programmes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.