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Interventional treatment of refractory non-traumatic chylous effusions in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders.

Clinical and experimental medicine

Authors: Julia Wagenpfeil, Katharina Hoß, Andreas Henkel, Daniel Kütting, Julian Alexander Luetkens, Georg Feldmann, Peter Brossart, Ulrike Irmgard Attenberger, Claus Christian Pieper

To report results of interventional treatment of refractory non-traumatic abdomino-thoracic chylous effusions in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. 17 patients (10 male; mean age 66.7 years) with lymphoproliferative disorders suffered from non-traumatic chylous effusions (chylothorax n = 11, chylous ascites n = 3, combined abdomino-thoracic effusion n = 3) refractory to chemotherapy and conservative therapy. All underwent x-ray lymphangiography with iodized-oil to evaluate for and at the same time treat lymphatic abnormalities (leakage, chylo-lymphatic reflux with/without obstruction of central drainage). In patients with identifiable active leakage additional lymph-vessel embolization was performed. Resolution of effusions was deemed as clinical success. Lymphangiography showed reflux in 8/17 (47%), leakage in 2/17 (11.8%), combined leakage and reflux in 3/17 (17.6%), lymphatic obstruction in 2/17 (11.8%) and normal findings in 2/17 cases (11.8%). 12/17 patients (70.6%) were treated by lymphangiography alone; 5/17 (29.4%) with leakage received additional embolization (all technically successful). Effusions resolved in 15/17 cases (88.2%); 10/12 (83.3%) resolved after lymphangiography alone and in 5/5 patients (100%) after embolization. Time-to-resolution of leakage was significantly shorter after embolization (within one day in all cases) than lymphangiography (median 9 [range 4-30] days; p = 0.001). There was no recurrence of symptoms or post-interventional complications during follow-up (median 445 [40-1555] days). Interventional-radiological treatment of refractory, non-traumatic lymphoma-induced chylous effusions is safe and effective. Lymphangiography identifies lymphatic abnormalities in the majority of patients and leads to resolution of effusions in > 80% of cases. Active leakage is found in only a third of patients and can be managed by additional embolization.

© 2024. The Author(s).

PMID: 38554229

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