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Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate: Genome-Wide Association Study in Europeans Identifies a Suggestive Risk Locus at 16p12.1 and Supports as a Clefting Susceptibility Gene.


Authors: Iris Alm van Rooij, Kerstin U Ludwig, Julia Welzenbach, Nina Ishorst, Michelle Thonissen, Tessel E Galesloot, Edwin Ongkosuwito, Stefaan J Bergé, Khalid Aldhorae, Augusto Rojas-Martinez, Lambertus Alm Kiemeney, Joris Robert Vermeesch, Han Brunner, Nel Roeleveld, Koen Devriendt, Titiaan Dormaar, Greet Hens, Michael Knapp, Carine Carels, Elisabeth Mangold

Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) ranks among the most common human congenital malformations, and has a multifactorial background in which both exogenous and genetic risk factors act in concert. The present report describes a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving a total of 285 nsCL/P patients and 1212 controls from the Netherlands and Belgium. Twenty of the 40 previously reported nsC/LP susceptibility loci were replicated, which underlined the validity of this sample. SNV-based analysis of the data identified an as yet unreported suggestive locus at chromosome 16p12.1 (-value of the lead SNV: 4.17 × 10). This association was replicated in two of three patient/control replication series (Central European and Yemeni). Gene analysis of the GWAS data prioritized at chromosome 10q24.33 as a candidate gene for nsCL/P. To date, support for this gene as a cleft gene has been restricted to data from zebrafish and a knockout mouse model. The present GWAS was the first to implicate in non-syndromic cleft formation in humans. In summary, although performed in a relatively small sample, the present GWAS generated novel insights into nsCL/P etiology.

PMID: 31817908

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