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TIPS and splenorenal shunt for complications of portal hypertension in chronic hepatosplenic schistosomiasis-A case series and review of the literature.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases

Authors: Tamara Nordmann, Stefan Schlabe, Torsten Feldt, Federico Gobbi, Andreas Krieg, Johannes G Bode, Andre Fuchs, Christian Kraef, Michael Praktiknjo, Jonel Trebicka, Michael Ramharter, Marylyn M Addo, Christian Strassburg, Ansgar W Lohse, Tom Luedde, Stefan Schmiedel, Hans Martin Orth

BACKGROUND: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and shunt surgery are established treatment options for portal hypertension, but have not been systematically evaluated in patients with portal hypertension due to hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS), one of the neglected tropical diseases with major impact on morbidity and mortality in endemic areas.

METHODS: In this retrospective case study, patients with chronic portal hypertension due to schistosomiasis treated with those therapeutic approaches in four tertiary referral hospitals in Germany and Italy between 2012 and 2020 were included. We have summarized pre-interventional clinical data, indication, technical aspects of the interventions and clinical outcome.

FINDINGS: Overall, 13 patients with confirmed HSS were included. 11 patients received TIPS for primary or secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding due to advanced portal hypertension and failure of conservative management. In two patients with contraindications for TIPS or technically unsuccessful TIPS procedure, proximal splenorenal shunt surgery in combination with splenectomy was conducted. During follow-up (mean follow-up 23 months, cumulative follow-up time 31 patient years) no bleeding events were documented. In five patients, moderate and transient episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy were observed. In one patient each, liver failure, portal vein thrombosis and catheter associated sepsis occurred after TIPS insertion. All complications were well manageable and had favorable outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: TIPS implantation and shunt surgery are safe and effective treatment options for patients with advanced HSS and sequelae of portal hypertension in experienced centers, but require careful patient selection.

PMID: 34932562

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