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Detection of G-Quadruplex DNA Structures in Macrophages.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)

Authors: Melanie Kastl, Fabian Hersperger, Katrin Kierdorf, Katrin Paeschke

In addition to the canonical B-DNA conformation, DNA can fold into different secondary structures. Among them are G-quadruplex structures (G4s). G4 structures are very stable and can fold in specific guanine-rich regions in DNA and RNA. Different in silico, in vitro, and in cellulo experiments have shown that G4 structures form so far in all tested organisms. There are over 700,000 predicted G4s in higher eukaryotes, but it is so far assumed that not all will form at the same time. Their formation is dynamically regulated by proteins and is cell type-specific and even changes during the cell cycle or during different exogenous or endogenous stimuli (e.g., infection or developmental stages) can alter the G4 level. G4s have been shown to accumulate in cancer cells where they contribute to gene expression changes and the mutagenic burden of the tumor. Specific targeting of G4 structures to impact the expression of oncogenes is currently discussed as an anti-cancer treatment. In a tumor microenvironment, not only the tumor cells will be targeted by G4 stabilization but also immune cells such as macrophages. Although G4s were detected in multiple organisms and different cell types, only little is known about their role in immune cells. Here, we provide a detailed protocol to detect G4 formation in the nucleus of macrophages of vertebrates and invertebrates by microscopic imaging.

© 2024. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

PMID: 37639141

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