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Extracellular Vesicles in Liver Diseases: Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Application.

Seminars in liver disease

Authors: Sabine K Urban, Tudor Mocan, Hanna Sänger, Veronika Lukacs-Kornek, Miroslaw Kornek

Extracellular vesicles, comprising exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, represent an emerging field in disease diagnostics and prognosis. They can be isolated from peripheral blood of patients as well as from other body fluids and can therefore be considered a minimally invasive liquid biopsy screening tool. Especially their surface antigen composition can reveal information about disease backgrounds. For several liver diseases, including fatal hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinoma as well as other nonmalignant liver disorders such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, or acute liver failure, it has been shown that extracellular vesicle (EV) surface profiling can be useful for disease diagnosis and prognosis. This review focuses on latest advances in these areas to improve liver disorder detection and management. Additionally, the authors will discuss possible therapeutic applications of EVs in liver diseases, which might be a potent treatment option in the future.

Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

PMID: 30654391

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