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Mechanisms of length-dependent recognition of viral double-stranded RNA by RIG-I.

Scientific reports

Authors: Jung Hyun Im, Ivana Duic, Shige H Yoshimura, Koji Onomoto, Mitsutoshi Yoneyama, Hiroki Kato, Takashi Fujita

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is the most front-line cytoplasmic viral RNA sensor and induces antiviral immune responses. RIG-I recognizes short double-stranded (dsRNA) (< 500 bp), but not long dsRNA (> 500 bp) to trigger antiviral signaling. Since RIG-I is capable of binding with dsRNA irrespective of size, length-dependent RIG-I signaling remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that RIG-I bound to long dsRNA with slow kinetics. Remarkably, RIG-I/short dsRNA complex efficiently dissociated in an ATP hydrolysis-dependent manner, whereas RIG-I/long dsRNA was stable and did not dissociate. Our study suggests that the dissociation of RIG-I from RIG-I/dsRNA complex could be a step for efficient antiviral signaling. Dissociated RIG-I exhibited homo-oligomerization, acquiring ability to physically associate with MAVS, and biological activity upon introduction into living cells. We herein discuss common and unique mechanisms of viral dsRNA recognition by RIG-I and MDA5.

© 2023. The Author(s).

PMID: 37072508

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