Skip to main content

Multicentric assessment of safety and efficacy of combinatorial adjuvant brain metastasis treatment by intraoperative radiotherapy and immunotherapy.

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics

Authors: Julian P Layer, Ehab Shiban, Stefanie Brehmer, Christian D Diehl, Douglas Guedes de Castro, Motaz Hamed, Cas S Dejonckheere, Daniel T Cifarelli, Lea L Friker, Ulrich Herrlinger, Michael Hölzel, Hartmut Vatter, Matthias Schneider, Stephanie E Combs, Leonard Christopher Schmeel, Christopher P Cifarelli, Frank A Giordano, Gustavo R Sarria, Klaus-Henning Kahl

PURPOSE: Following surgical resection of brain metastases (BMs), intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) provides a promising alternative to adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) by enabling superior organ at risk preservation, reduction of in-hospital times and timely admission to subsequent systemic treatments, which increasingly comprise novel targeted immunotherapeutic approaches. We sought to assess safety and efficacy of IORT in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and other targeted therapies (TTs).

METHODS: In a multicentric approach incorporating individual patient data from six international IORT centers, all patients with BMs undergoing IORT were retrospectively assessed for combinatorial treatment with ICIs/TTs and evaluated for toxicity and cumulative rates, including wound dehiscence, radiation necrosis (RN), leptomeningeal spread (LMS), local control (LC), distant brain progression (DBP) and estimated overall survival (OS).

RESULTS: A total of 103 lesions with a median diameter of 34 mm receiving IORT combined with immunomodulatory systemic treatment or other TTs were included. The median follow up was 13.2 (1.2-102.4) months and the median IORT dose was 25 (18-30) Gy prescribed to the applicator surface. There was one grade 3 adverse event related to IORT recorded (2.2%). A 4.9% cumulative RN rate was observed. The 1-year LCR was 98.0% and the 1-year DBP-free rate 60.0%. Median time to DBP was 5.5 (1.0-18.5) months in the subgroup of patients experiencing DBP and the cumulative LMS rate was 4.9%. The median estimated OS was 26 (1.2-not reached) months with a 1-year survival rate of 74.0%. Early initiation of IT/TT was associated with a non-significant trend towards improved DBP rate and OS.

CONCLUSION: The combination of ICIs/TT with IORT for resected BMs does not seem to increase toxicity, while yielding encouraging local control outcomes in the difficult-to-treat subgroup of larger BMs. Time gaps between surgery and systemic treatment could be shortened or avoided. The definitive role of IORT in local control after BM resection will be defined in a prospective trial.

Copyright © 2024. Published by Elsevier Inc.

PMID: 38199383

Participating cluster members